1857 US Postage Stamps 1857 Scotts - US Postage Stamps 1857 Scotts - US Postage Stamps 1857 Scotts - US Postage Stamps 1857 Scotts - US Postage Stamps 1857 Scotts - US Postage Stamps 1857 Scotts - US Postage Stamps 1857 Scotts - US Postage Stamps 1857 Scotts - US Postage Stamps 1857 US Postage Stamp Essays

1857 1¢ - #19

The value of the stamps Statistics and facts about the stamp
what you should look for how the stamp was made
Varieties of the stamp the making of the stamp

The Value of the Stamp

US 18
1¢ - Blue - Type Ia
The design is complete at the sides and bottom but incomplete at the top.
Top center line and tops of the ornament are missing.
Furthermore, there is a flaw below and to the left of the "U" of "U.S.POSTAGE".

Perf. 15½ - Scott #19

Value

(with 4 margins around the design)
Used: $3,250-$3,900
No postmark with gum (MH): $4,750-$6,000
Full perfect gum, no postmark, no trace of stamp hinge mark (MNH): $47,500-$70,000

Statistics

Earliest date of use: Sept 9th, 1857

19 EDU Scotts - US Postage Stamps
Earliest date of use cover

Plate Size: Sheets of 200 subjects (2 panes of 100).

pane of 1857 1¢ Franklin
A full pane of 100

Printer: Toppan, Carpenter, Casilier & Co. using the die-to-relief-to-plate transfer process.

Watermark: None

Quantity Issued: 300,000

Use: The one-cent stamp was required to pay the fee for drop letters and circulars under 500 miles. It was also the rate for newspapers and circulars.


What you should look for

Identifying #19
(#19 is a Type Ia)

18 US stamps

#19 is a Type Ia design. The design on the bottom and sides of Type Ia are complete. However the design at the top is not complete, some of the top ornaments have been burnished off, see the illustration above.

Only one plate produced the perforated Type Ia stamp, that being plate 4.

Notes on #19

1) #19 comes 18 of the 20 bottom-row positions on Plate 4.
2) The bottom row of plate 4 only just fits within the perforation, such a tight fit in fact that almost all examples have the perforations cutting into the design.

How many plates were there?

There were twelve plates of the 1¢ Franklin made, plate six was never used, probably due to it being damaged in it's creation. Most of the plates were used for both the imperforate and perforated design. Some only produced one type or the other. For instance, plate 12 produced only perforated stamps and the early state of Plate 1 produced only imperforate stamps.

 

The Inspiration for the Design

City Of Alpena
Benjamin Franklin
Jean-Jacques Caffieri (1725-1792)
Marble, 25" high
The Peabody Collection, Maryland

The design was based off Jean-Jacques Caffieri's bust of Franklin.

Varieties to look for

DESIGN CLEAR OF PERFORATIONS AT THE BOTTOM

19 strip Scotts - US Postage Stamps
Strip of 3, Types 1a, 1a, 1¢

The strip of three above is shown in Brookman because it is one of the few examples where the design is clear of the perforations at the bottom. The height of the bottom row positions resulted in the perforations often cutting into the design at the bottom.

THE CURL ON THE SHOULDER VARIETY

6 curl on the shoulder Scotts - US Postage Stamps

Showing Curl in shoulder variety
The flaw was due to a thread being stuck to the plate
at the time of the printing.
Position 97L4

18 forgery

A contemporary forgery of the 1¢ Franklin

The Essay's and Proofs

franklin vignette
Vignette of Ben Franklin
Imperf essay on laid india paper


Unlisted 1¢ Liberty
Black, Vignette Die Essay on Proof paper
frame similar to 5¢ Jefferson
Probably attributable to Toppan, Carpenter, Casilier and Co.


5-E1a
Black, Vignette Die Essay on India


5-E1var
Black, Vignette Die Essay on India
Unlisted showing both Franklin and Washington


5-E1b
Black, Vignette Die Essay on Proof Paper


5-E1f
Black, Vignettes Die Essay on Proof Paper


5-E2
6¢ Black
Die Essay on India


How the perforated stamp came to us

Prince Consort Essay
The Prince Consort essay

When Rowland Hill designed the worlds first postage stamp, the penny black, no provision was made for separating the stamps. in 1847, six years after the introduction of the first stamp, Henry Archer submitted a two seperating machines to the British postmaster general. These machines employed lancet shaped blades, however their effect, was mixed at best. Soon after Mr Archer patented a machine which used perforation as a means of seperation, his first trials with this machine were on the Prince Consort essay, an example is seen above. The Prince Consort was Prince Albert, the design was never approved.

1853 revenue stamp
1853 One penny receipt stamp
Worlds first perforated stamp

Prince Consort Essay
1854 Penny Red
Worlds first perforated postage stamp

In October 1853 the first perforated stamps were issued in the UK using new perforating machines built by David Napier and Son Ltd, they were revenue stamps The first perforated stamps were revenue stamps issued in October 1853.

Aaron Brown

Aaron Brown, Postmaster-General 1857-59

In 1857 the new postmaster general was determined to introduce the perforation of postage stamps to the US. Perforating machines, at the cost of $3,000 were acquired by Toppan Carpenter, along with $6,000 in new plates. The machines were from England, but not from Napier, they purchased rouletting machines from William Bemrose & Sons of Derby, converting them to perforating machines. One problem is that these new machines could accommodate a relatively narrow sheet, which explains why the stamps of the 1857 series are spaced so close together. The first stamps to be perforated were the thirty cent, twenty four cent and ninety cent values.

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