1857 US Postage Stamps 1857 Scotts - US Postage Stamps 1857 Scotts - US Postage Stamps 1857 Scotts - US Postage Stamps 1857 Scotts - US Postage Stamps 1857 Scotts - US Postage Stamps 1857 Scotts - US Postage Stamps 1857 Scotts - US Postage Stamps 1857 Scotts - US Postage Stamps 1857 US Postage Stamp Essays

1857 1¢ - #19

US 18
1¢ - Blue - Type Ia
The design is complete at the sides and bottom but incomplete at the top.
Top center line and tops of the ornament are missing.
Furthermore, there is a flaw below and to the left of the "U" of "U.S.POSTAGE".

Perf. 15½ - Scott #19


(with 4 margins around the design)
Used: $3,250-$3,900
No postmark with gum (MH): $4,750-$6,000
Full perfect gum, no postmark, no trace of stamp hinge mark (MNH): $47,500-$70,000


Earliest date of use: Sept 9th, 1857

19 EDU Scotts - US Postage Stamps

Earliest date of use cover

Plate Size:
Sheets of 200 subjects (2 panes of 100).

pane of 1857 1¢ Franklin
A full pane of 100

Toppan, Carpenter, Casilier & Co. using the die-to-relief-to-plate transfer process.


Quantity Issued:

The one-cent stamp was required to pay the fee for drop letters and
circulars under 500 miles. It was also the rate for newspapers and circulars.

What you should look for

Identifying #19
(#19 is a Type Ia)

19 US stamps

#19 is a Type Ia design. The design on the bottom and sides of Type Ia are complete.
However the design at the top is not complete, some of the top ornaments have been burnished off,
see the illustration above.

Only one plate produced the perforated Type Ia stamp, that being plate 4.

Notes on #19

1) #19 comes 18 of the 20 bottom-row positions on Plate 4
2) The bottom row of plate 4 only just fits within the perforation, such a tight fit in fact that
almost all examples have the perforations cutting into the design.

How many plates were there?

There were twelve plates of the 1¢ Franklin made, plate sixwas never used, probably due to it being damaged in
it's creation. Most of the plates were used for both the imperforate and perforated design. Some only produced one
type or the other. For instance, plate 12 produced only perforated stamps and the early state of Plate 1 produced
only imperforate stamps.

US Stamps 19 wide space
An example of a wide spaced #19

The space between the designs on #19 was so tight that part of the design was almost always cut into.
It would seem that late in the printing of the stamp the space beween the designs was widened, thus allowing the full
design to be seen. Examples of these later wide spaced stamp are rare and command a high premium in price.


23 Imprint Toppan Scotts - US Postage Stamps

The printers imprint, one on each side of the sheet, the plate number is under the printers name

23 Negative Imprint Toppan Scotts - US Postage Stamps
The printer changed the design of the imprint to a negative imprint in late 1860.
It can be found on plates 11 and 12

The Inspiration for the Design

City Of Alpena
Benjamin Franklin
Jean-Jacques Caffieri (1725-1792)
Marble, 25" high
The Peabody Collection, Maryland

The design was based off Jean-Jacques Caffieri's bust of Franklin.

Varieties to look for


19 strip Scotts - US Postage Stamps
Strip of 3, Types 1a, 1a, 1¢

The strip of three above is shown in Brookman because it is one of the few examples where
the design is clear of the perforations at the bottom. The height of the bottom row
positions resulted in the perforations often cutting into the design at the bottom.


6 curl on the shoulder Scotts - US Postage Stamps

Showing Curl in shoulder variety
The flaw was due to a thread being stuck to the plate
at the time of the printing.
Position 97L4

18 forgery

A contemporary forgery of the 1¢ Franklin

The Essay's and Proofs

franklin vignette
Vignette of Ben Franklin
Imperf essay on laid india paper

Unlisted 1¢ Liberty
Black, Vignette Die Essay on Proof paper
frame similar to 5¢ Jefferson
Probably attributable to Toppan, Carpenter, Casilier and Co.

Black, Vignette Die Essay on India

Black, Vignette Die Essay on India
Unlisted showing both Franklin and Washington

Black, Vignette Die Essay on Proof Paper

Black, Vignettes Die Essay on Proof Paper

6¢ Black
Die Essay on India

How the perforated stamp came to the US

Prince Consort Essay
The Prince Consort essay

When Rowland Hill designed the worlds first postage stamp, the penny black, no provision was made for separating
the stamps. in 1847, six years after the introduction of the first stamp, Henry Archer submitted a two seperating
machines to the British postmaster general. These machines employed lancet shaped blades, however their effect,
was mixed at best. Soon after Mr Archer patented a machine which used perforation as a means of seperation, his
first trials with this machine were on the Prince Consort essay, an example is seen above. The Prince Consort was
Prince Albert, the design was not approved.

Prince Consort Essay
1854 Penny Red
Worlds first perforated postage stamp

In October 1853 the first perforated stamps were issued in the UK using new perforating machines built by David Napier
and Son Ltd, they were revenue stamps The first perforated stamps were revenue stamps issued in October 1853.

Aaron Brown

Aaron Brown, Postmaster-General 1857-59

In 1857 the new postmaster general was determined to introduce the perforation of postage stamps to the US.
Perforating machines, at the cost of $3,000 were acquired by Toppan Carpenter, along with $6,000 in new plates.
The machines were imported from England, but not from Napier comapny as one would expect, they purchased
rouletting machines from William Bemrose & Sons of Derby, converting them to perforating machines.
One problem is that these new machines could accommodate a relatively narrow sheet, which explains why
the stamps of the 1857 series are spaced so close together. The first stamps to be perforated were the
thirty cent, twenty four cent and ninety cent values.

1857 US Postage Stamps 1857 Scotts - US Postage Stamps 1857 Scotts - US Postage Stamps 1857 Scotts - US Postage Stamps 1857 Scotts - US Postage Stamps 1857 Scotts - US Postage Stamps 1857 Scotts - US Postage Stamps 1857 Scotts - US Postage Stamps 1857 Scotts - US Postage Stamps 1857 US Postage Stamp Essays